CHRONOLOGY RECTIFIED

An investigation embodying critical analysis of two Bible Studies by Dr.E.L.Martin entitled "The Sabbatical Years in Prophecy", and "Chronology - the Key to Prophetic Understanding". Herein Identified as SY and KP(1) or (2) 

 

The term Biblical Chronology is to be avoided as It Implies Independent validity for secular chronology. There can be only one true chronology; since what Is true In one source win always be compatible with truth from another source. So let It be positively affirmed that once the exact placement of jubilee years In biblical history Is understood, and once the behaviour of eclipses and their observation Is rightly appreciated, then no discrepancy appears between events so located. 

Researchers Into chronology necessarily employ a principal authority and elucidate Its details from other sources which may have to be adapted to that authority or rejected as unsound. It has been cannon for those purporting to defend the Bible to seek to adapt or Interpret It to conform to some secular source, so making the latter their authority rather than the Bible. This Investigation 1s based solidly on the Bible as the sole authority; and Its statements are to be accepted as beyond challenge. The reader should resolutely refuse to reach any settled conviction until he can himself read, understand and unquestioningly embrace what the scriptures state. No man's opinion can ever be a substitute for this unique authority.

But a biblical statement may be unclear or ambiguous. It could be unclear because It has not been accurately read, because cannon assumptions obscure Unmeaning, or because context or Idiomatic usage have not been recognised. Even when these causes are eliminated a biblical statement may still be ambiguous, needing to be understood by reference to those scriptures which are clear. When our authority Is the Bible no scriptures may be taken selectively, but supporting evidence from other sources may have to be so treated, as such may or may not be completely true. 

It can be agreed that. "First Kings 6.1. is a most Important reference" KP(1)p.4.; "But wait a moment'": Is it true that "We are told that there were exactly 480 years from the^first year of the Exodus from Egypt - - to year 4 of King Solomon's reign" ?   No, It is untrue; the phrase "first year of the Exodus" is not found in that verse. It is an imposition of theological thought construed may be from Numbers 33.38. where the standard versions read - "the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt". But Young's Literal Version here reads - "the fortieth year of the going out of the sons of Israel"; and the "of" here is correct, just as It was years before in the Douai Version and is now in the New World Translation. 

The "going out (or coming out) of Egypt of the sons of Israel" is a significant term occurring frequently and meaning, not a single occasion, but the entire forty year period from the Red Sea to the Jordan. Certainly this assertion should be checked by considering Deut.4.46.,23.4.,24.9., Jos.5.5., Nahum 7.15., Psa.114.5., Heb.11.29. and any other similar passages. 

The 480th year of IKings 6.1. relates therefore not to the Exodus but to the entry to the land forty years later. That is how Van Lennep had naturally assumed the verse's meaning in 1928. he not being aware that many years earlier the case for it had been made in Cassells Biblical Educator by Col.C.R.Condor of the Royal Engineers. It provides a chronological bridge for constructing a basic framework without first resolving the problems of the Judges period. Having thus established that Solomon's 480th year from the entry into the land was his fourth year it follows that his final and fortieth year was the 516th from that point; and thus that the 517th year was the first year of both Rheoboam and Jeroboam. 

Now ELM states, "after three years Jeroboam set up the calf worship in Bethel and Dan", KP(1)p5. But this shows a reckless misreading of 2Chron.l1:13-17;  it is quite plain that those "three years" related only to Judah and Jerusalem. Some of the "Northern Israelites" had resorted there, following the Levites whom Jeroboam had dismissed in favour of his own appointees when he set up the worship of the calf. That must have been in the 517th year after the entry to the land. 

Jeroboam's Idolatrous altar was denounced by a man of God who prophesied that at a later date a child named Josiah In due course would sacrifice its false priests upon it. IKings 13:1/2. Josiah was indeed a child of eight years when he became king of Judah, 2Kings 22:1.& 23:15-20. He began his purge in his 12th year and it was doubtless completed in his 13th year. 2Chron.34:1-7. Now Josephus, whose dates are not always inaccurate, says this prophecy was fulfilled in 361 years, Ant.X/4/4. 

If Josephus here happens to be correct, then the first of his 361 years was the 518th year from the entry and the 361st was the 878th year, this being also Josiah's 13th year. Thus it follows with Josiah's further 18 years and Jehoiakim's 11 years that Zedekiah's 5th year was the 912th year from the Jordan crossing. That same year was also the 5th year of Jeconiah which, as Ezekiel 1:1. tells us, was the 30th year; and not being otherwise defined it refers to a 49 year term. So clearly Zedekiah's 10th year was the 35th, a sabbatic year. which Jer.34. confirms was the case. 

Zedekiah's 5th year being the 912th means his 10th year was the 917th year from Israel's entry to the land, and if correct it must be divisible by seven. Yes, it is. being 131 x 7 !   The diagram sets out the basic facts presented so far - 

Detailed consideration must now be given to sabbatic years, but first It is essential to be clear about Israel's new year. In patriarchal times the new year evidently began with the month Ethanim (later called Tishri). but Moses by Divine Instruction changed the beginning of the year to Abib (later called Nisan)., see Exod.2:2 & 34:18.. This fact Is so Important that it is advisable to check that it was not later changed back. In Solomon's time it had not altered, and Ethanim was called the 7th month, not the first. 1Kings 8:2. Many years later the 3rd month was not Kislev but Sivan still in Esther 8:9; and In Zech.1:7 the 11th month was still Sebat. 

So the new year always began with Nisan;  and though the first day of Ethanim was then to be celebrated as a sabbath, it was not as the first but as the seventh month, see Num.29:1.  The focus on Rosh HaShanah was a later innovation of rabbinic Judaism, and those who rely on such traditions can be led astray. This sadly is the case with ELM when he wrongly asserts, "the New Year must always be acknowledged as being that of Rosh Ha-Shanah (the Day of Trumpets)" KP(1)P.2, a basic error vitiating his studies throughout. It is only after being firmly convinced that the B1b1e teaches that the year always began with Nisan that understanding of the jubilees Will be attained. 

The Israelites entered the land In Nisan. and six full years were completed at the end of the month Adar. The seventh year thus began with the next month of Nisan. as also In due course did the 49th year. So when it states In Lev.25:9:  "Then shall thou cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month - -"  What month was that If not Ethanim;  and of what year if not of that 49th year. the sabbatic one just begun in Nisan ?  This Is the plain statement of the Scriptures, and the fact that sowing is mentioned before reaping does not nullify it.  *It may seem illogical to the modem western mind to have a 50th year begin before a 49th had run its course, but to ancient oriental minds this was no problem. That is why they only asked "What shall we eat the seventh year ? ",  rather than. "What shall we eat the 50th year ?". There was no need for further provision since that for the 49th covered it. Thus the Sabbatic Year began in Nisan and the Jubilee in the Tishri of the self same year, the 50th year overlapping by six months both the 49th and the following 1st year of the next term. *[sowing in one year:  reaping in next year] 

On the basis of the years established above, the 35th year being the 917th from the entry, it follows that deducting 35 years we get the 882nd as a 49th year. In fact it was the 18th Jubilee. and was the 17th year of Josiah. In his 17th year the sabbatic year began In Nisan. and then the Jubilee began In Tishri, ending in the following Tishri of his 18th. during which year he celebrated that special Passover. 2K1ngs 23:23. 

It is incorrect therefore to claim that there was a "Sabbatical Year from the Autumn of 163 to Autumn 162 BC";  the years are correct but the seasons were Spring to Spring. SY p3. There is no need to query the stated sabbatical years, but remember that they began in Nisan, not Tishri. 

There are quite a few hints in the Bible of where sabbatic or jubilee years occurred, and their proof is established by how they relate to the septennial system, there is however only one clear Instance of a jubilee, which is in Luke 4:16-20. of which ELM aptly states, "Christ was proclaiming that very year in which He spoke those words AS A JUBILEE". SYp6.   Yes, "it was the first year of His ministry". but that was "the Sabbatical Year of AD 27/28". it did not follow it, as ELM says here. Whether or not a typical or spiritual application is possible this was an actual jubilee, for it states in v.16. "He came to Nazareth, where he was brought up" in accordance with Lev 25:13.; and it would have been at Yom Kippur. 10th Tishri. not at Pentecost - - though His anointing may well refer to that feast and his baptism. Both Shemittah and Yobel began in 27.AD and ended In 28.AD, the former from Nisan and the latter from the 10th of Tishri. 

The use of the designations AD and BC relates to Julian Years from January to December. The biblical years begin In Nisan near March/April of such years. The Roman emperor Augustus died on 19th August 14.AD; so it is correct to say, "the 15th year of Tiberlas Caesar - - - was the year AD 28" SYp4. But despite the common versions Luke never used the word "reign". which In Greek is basileuO, but hEgemonia meaning "government", and is rightly translated in the Diaglott, as also by the versions of Sharpe, Bowes, Young and Darby. Tiberlas had taken over the government on 16th of January AD.13 while Augustus still reigned; so the 15th year of his government ran from early AD.27.

Accepting that Jesus was born in Tishri and that he was in his 30th year In AD.27, then John. his cousin who was six months older, would also have been about thirty n Nisan of that same year when he began preaching in Judaea. That Galilean fishermen were In the district seeking the Messiah suggests the time of a feast at Jerusalem, most probably Pentecost. This would have been when Jesus was baptised by John, and when Andrew told his brother Simon. "We have found the Messiah", Jn.1:40. 

There can be no doubt but that Jesus was born thirty years before In the autumn of 4.BC; and as the Bible is correct, then ELM must be wrong to write of "Messiah's birth in 3.BC", KP(l)p.lO. But it may be asked : Did not Herod die just before the Passover early In 4.BC ?  No, there was an eclipse on March 13th that year. after which Herod's illness intensified and many events took place before his eventual death just before the Passover in the following year. Jewish sources give the date as the 1st Sebat 3.BC, and as this Is compatible with Biblical and historical data its validity need not be questioned. 

Many have laboured to identify four Passovers during the ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ, no doubt influenced by the notion of a prophetic half-week. But a ministry of two and a half years from Tishri 27 to Nisan 30 has significance as 2 (two or three), symbolising witness or testimony. The three Passovers can be located thus - (1) 28.AD Jn.2:23.   (2) 29.AD Jn.6:4.   (3) 30.AD Jn.13:1,   this last being the time of his death and resurrection. The Church Father Hippolytus confirms this, stating that it occurred in the 18th year of Tiberius (=30.AD) In Christ's 33rd year. 

This diagram shows the basics of what has been discussed -

 

The siege of Jerusalem culminated in the setting fire to the Temple on the 9/10th Ab in the year 70.AD. This was four months after the close of the Shemittah. which had ended In the Adar just before. To quote Rutherford, "The Talmud records that both the First and Second Temple were destroyed just after a Shemittah had ended". AR.p.286. it is needlessly devious to construe the word "after" to mean "in" as ELM suggests, item (6) SY p.4; of course this is intended to support the false notion that the Shemittah ran from Tishri Instead of from Nisan. 

Conder attributes this Jewish claim to Rabbi Jose, stating, "the destruction of the first Temple occurred on the 9th of the month Ab, at the end of the Sabbath, at the end of the week, and during the - - - course of Jehoiarib", HB.p.7.  The "week" Is not pleonastic, it means a Shemittah. 

Each of the 24 priestly courses ran for eight days, with the outgoing and oncoming ones both serving on the Sabbath. The significance here is not that Jehoiarib was coming on but that the course of Maaziah, the 24th, was going off. See 1Chr.ch.24. 

Both Rutherford (who held the Tishri basis) and Conder (who accepted the Nisan basis) included this feature in their own chronologies, but neither satisfied all its aspects. Let us see If we can. 

It is established that the sabbatic year of Zedekiah's 10th year ended at Adar when his 11th year began. Later that year, the 918th from the entry, the temple was set on fire on 9th Ab. Any period to fill the gap between the two conflagrations must be a multiple of 7 years; It must also comprise a number of days divisible exactly by 24 and by seven. 

Now without giving all the details of calculation It can be stated that the needed conditions are met by a total of 1187 completed priest's courses. If this number is multiplied by both 24 and 7 we get 199416 days. and these are precise figures. What cannot be so exact, due to the sun's annual rotation of what is now 365.2422 days. is the number of years. it is not known if the sun's rotation was that length in the years considered, but if it was then 199416 days comes to 546 years less six days (the effect of incomplete intercalary correction). But If the sun's cycle was then 365.23 days the years would be exactly 546. which In any case can be accepted.  Now 546 years Is 79 sabbatic terms; so all conditions are fully met. 

By subtracting the 69 years AD from 546 we get 477, which thus is the BC date of Zedekiah's 11th year, being also the 918th from the entry. Adding these two together we now get 1394, the BC date of Israel's first year in the land. 

Solomon's 4th year being the 480th, it follows that his 14th was the 490th year, which can now be placed as 905-904.BC. being the 10th Jubilee; and 392 years later on was 513/512.BC, the 18th Jubilee, starting In Josiah's 17th year. Now comes the acid test: What is the interval between 513.BC and 27.AD ? It Is 513 + 27 - 1 = 539. That number Is 49 x 11 !   So the jubilees do In fact correlate; and it is found that adding 18 and 11 makes 27.AD to be the 29th Jubilee ' This was when Jesus In Nazareth announced His Messianic mission and the acceptable year of Jehovah. 

The seventy years of the Desolation of Jerusalem, being ten actual sabbatic terms, ran from | Zedekiah's llth year, and It can now be dated as 477.BC. The period thus ended at the sabbatic year of 408.BC. which, when related to 27.AD, amounts to a difference In years of 408+27-1 = 434. | Now dividing these years by seven we get 62 ! Yes, Indeed; In fact It's the "sixty-two weeks to I Messiah the Prince" of Daniel 9.25..

"But wait a moment'": What about "the 69 Weeks of Sabbatical Periods" ELM mentions. KP(l)p.2 ? Well, they are not found in my Bible, nor in anyone else's either. Had it been possible for Gabriel to add the seven and the sixty-two heptads together, he would have done so. It has yet to be found out whether those seven heptads were of days, weeks, months or years. In times past it always has been assumed, as if beyond dispute, that these figures are to be added; and then including a future seven years constitute the seventy weeks of verse 24. This assuption is challenged below. 

The year 408.BC also coincided with the 6th year of Darius Hystaspis, Ezra 6.15. So his 1st year was 413.BC, and the last and 8th year of Cambyses was 414.BC. Now during the latter's 7th year an eclipse was observed in September 415.BC. apparently identical to one seen in August 469, and also on 16th July 523.BC. [deslgnated 522 when a zero year is assumed between BC and AD] 

It is known that an eclipse reappears after 54 years and one month near to the same viewpoint, an effect discussed by Van Lennep in 1928. VP.pp 19/20, and more recently by ELM, KP(2). 

Ptolemy settled for 523 as the 7th year of Cambyses when compiling his Royal Canon, by which he Introduced an error which has falsified early chronology for centuries, though the Royal Canon's dates for Codomannus and later are not in question. But the evidence adduced from Scripture shows that by this mistake he had inserted an extra 108 years and two months. Ptolemy had been misled by the historians to infer more Medo-Persian monarchs than had reigned, though some may have been minor rulers of the same period. These can be listed as follows :- 

  • XERXES ..............21                NB: Xerxes only means "king". 

  • NOTHUS .............19                It was probably the name of 

  • MNEMON ............45                Longimanus in earlier days. 

  • OCHUS ................21                The appellatives Artaxerxes. 

  • AROGUS .............  2                Xerxes and Ahasuerus cannot 

  • Total                    108yrs.           he used for Identification. 

Another error in the Canon is the treating of the eight years of Cambyses as his sole reign, when in fact it was only six years, his first two being jointly with Cyrus, see Ant.XI/II/2. This has been ably explained by Rutherford, AR.pp.239-247. The two years error was righted unwittingly by leaving out the two years interval between Ashurbanipal (626.BC), i.e. 518.BC and Nabopolassar. 

The diagram below depicts the corrected order of the Medo-Persian kings, and from it the four that were to arise between Cyrus and Alexander according to Daniel 11.2. become evident. 

The diagram is arranged to show clearly the several spans of seventy years that are named Eras by Robt.Anderson in his The Coming Prince, though he only acknowledges three.

 ERA A: This Is termed "Babylon's Day" by Rutherford, AR.p26L. It is that period during whIch Nebuchadnezzar and his successors in Babylon held sway by Divlne authority. Jer.27.6/7., 25.12/13.. 

ERA B: The Servitude. It began with the first siege of Nebuchadnezzar when he took a few of the Temple treasures and a small number of the Jewish elite as slaves. Dan.1.1-4. The release came with the edict of Cyrus In his 1st year when a limited group returned comprising, "the chief fathers - - and the priests and Levites, even all those whose spirit God had stirred", Ezra 1.5.. Josephus comments. "yet did many of them stay at Babylon", Ant.XI/1/3/. Ezra 2. relates to the next Era.

ERA C: The Captivity, generally so called, was dated from the brief reign of Jeconiah after the death of Jehoiakim. It was then that the majority of Judah's people were deported, being some 10,000 captives; and with Divine sanction, such as to be classed as "good figs", 2Kgs.24:11-16, and Jer.24:4-7 & chap.29:1-10.. The promised return is so fully assured that it cannot be doubted but that it took place at the appointed time, shown to be the 4th year of Cambyses. The earlier decree of Cyrus would have permitted it, though Cambyses must have been aware of its occurrence. The letter of the Samaritan leaders complained to Cambyses concerning "the Jews who came up from you to us", Ezra 4:11-16.. It could apply only to the major group who returned under the leadership of Joshua, Zeruhbabel and Nehemiah, Ezra 2.:1-67.. Neh.7:5-69., 1 Esdras 5:7-42.. 

ERA D: The Indignation. The close of this Era is more easily identified than its beginning. It ended during the 2nd year of Darius Hystaspis when he gave to Zerubbabel the approval he sought; and that it had been given was confirmed by Zechariah, Zech.1:1-17.. It was effective in the 6th month, Elul, Hag.1:1-15.. This same month evidently marked the starting point as indicated by Ezekiel's vision in the 6th year of Zedekiah concerning evil practices in Jerusalem. Ezek.chs.8, 9, 10 & 11.. 

ERA E: The Desolations. This Is the only Era comprising just ten sabbatic terms. It concerns only Jerusalem, and in particular the Temple. The first year began in Zedekiah's 11th year and this Era ended in the 6th year of Darius with the restored Temple ready for the new year in BC.407, the first year of the first of the sixty-two weeks leading to Messiah. 

Now when was the commandment given to "to restore and to build Jerusalem" ?  It Is not to he found in the Bible: but it is to be found In the Apocrypha. It says of Zerubbabel that he "spake wise sentences before the king of Persia in the second year of his reign, in the month Nisan", 1Esdras 5:6.; and in response to this Darius wrote letters to the various officials to "safely convey on their way both him and all those that go up with him to build Jerusalem", Esdras 4:48-63.. 

Exactly when In BC.412 Darius issued his command we are not told. It must have been after Nisan and before Elul, and if the middle month of Sivan be assumed it would be four years and sixty two weeks of years to Pentecost of AD.27.. How can four years represent seven heptads ?  By taking the 48 months and adding the inevitable VeAdar month we get seven sevens of months !  An unimagined but inescapable result given the two fixed year dates. It explains why the 7 and 62 cannot be added. 

Now although the chronology so far is Bible based by means of the Jubilee periods of 49 years, it could be that their number is in excess or short of one Jubilee, since reliance was placed on a period stated by Josephus. Its accuracy must therefore be checked by the reigns of Judah's kings. It has been shown that Solomon's 14th year was the 10th Jubilee, and as the years from Solomon to Hezekiah are given by VL, AR &, IP as 294 (6x49). It follows that Hezekiah's 14th year was the 16th Jubilee, being BC.611., and his last year was BC.596. So the first year of Manasseh was BC.595.. 

Now as Josiah's 17th year was BC.513 his first year was BC.529. and since Amon reigned for two years then the last year of his father, Manasseh, was BC.532. Now Manasseh's first year being BC.595 it appears that he had a reign of 64 years. But the Bible plainly states that he "reigned fifty and five years In Jerusalem", 2Kings.21:1. How can this be reconciled ?  By noting the word Jerusalem; as Manasseh at one time was a captive in Babylon, and then was not at Jerusalem. There is nothing recorded of this beyond what is said In 2Chron. 33:11-13.. 

There are apparently nine years to be allocated to Manasseh's captivity, unless it was longer or shorter by 49 years. It cannot be shorter, but could he longer if a captivity of 58 years was conceivable and that Manasseh lived and reigned until he was 124 years of age. As that is out of the question, it can be accepted that the computed jubilees are correct and that Josephus was right. 

Manasseh reigned for 33 years and then. in BC.563, was taken captive by Esarhaddon in his 10th year as he returned from a campaign to Egypt with its king, Tirhakah, in bonds; both then were taken to Babylon as prisoners. In his 6th year Ashurbanipal released Manasseh and he returned to Jerusalem and resumed his 34th year of reigning in BC.553.. 

This completes the basic structure of the rectified chronology. Those who wish can work out the details of periods embraced such as the Judges. But the elements can be summated as follows :- 

  • From Adam to the covenant with Abraham aged 99    2107 yrs 

  • From Abraham's covenant to the Exodus                     430 yrs 

  • The Coming out of Egypt of the sons of Israel               40 yrs 

  • Twenty-nine Jubilees up to AD.27 Inclusive               1421 yrs 

  • Christ's further two years of-ministry to AD.30                2 yrs 

  •                                                                                 4000 yrs 

Thus is indicated the timing of the second Adam, not at his birth or his baptism, but at his Death and Resurrection at the Passover In AD.30.. 

It has been an ancient but mistaken assumption that the "seventy weeks'* embraced the seven and the sixty-two weeks, so obscuring the reality that they indicated its epoch. With six Features only given for this prophesied period when seven would have been expected, and with them all-in some way involving the promised Messiah, surely there should be a seventh aspect featuring Him. 

When the virgin Mary was told by the angel Gabriel of her intended motherhood of the promised Seed of the Woman she asked, "How shall this be since I know not a man ?". When Daniel was told by Gabriel of the promised blessing for Israel and Jerusalem during seventy sevens of years, he might have asked, 'How shall this be since the Messiah is not mentioned ?'   But Gabriel anticipates this, saying, "Know therefore and understand", and then gives the timing for Messiah's appearance. So the two visitations of Gabriel are not unrelated; and the 7th feature of the 490 years will be found In the declaration, "Jehovah Elohim will give him the throne of his father David", Lk.1:32.. 

It is quite probable that Daniel was aware of the prophecy of Ezekiel, just 36 years before, so he would know already that the resurrection of David to reclaim his throne and reign over the united houses of Israel and Judah was also prophesied. Its fulfilment coming within the same Seventy Weeks, see Ezekiel chapter 37 in particular. The period is marked in sequence by the repenting of the house of Judah, the resurrection of the lost house of Israel, the reuniting of the two houses under the New Covenant and with David as their King and Prince. Ultimately, it ends in apostasy, the events given In the Apocalypse and in Christ's return to earth to reign on David's throne. This will mark the end of the present age and the start of the age to come, which is known as the Millennium, the fulfilment of the declaration of Gabriel, "He shall reign over the house of Jacob unto the ages [eis tous aiOnas], and of his kingdom there shall be no end" Lk.1:32/33.. 

This period therefore has been named the pre-millennial kingdom of the heavens, and referred to in Scripture often as "the last days", that is, of this age. it constitutes the first phase of that Kingdom of which "there shall be no end". The Millennial phase follows, after which Christ's reign does end. and he will give over the kingdom to the Father, 1Cor.15:24/5.. 

The imninence of that Kingdom was announced by John the Baptist, and then by Jesus himself, teaching through parables. Although the course of the Seventy Weeks, embracing the Initial phase of the kingdom, began nominally In 27.AD, It became effective In 30.AD based on Christ's resurrection but confirmed by the Holy Spirit In manifest power as recorded In Acts chapter 2. 

The theme of the eventual kingdom of the heavens is one of the two great subjects of promise which characterise the Old Testament scriptures, and which to a large extent are interrelated. The other major theme concerns all that was promised and predicted with respect to the Seed of Promise, the second Adam, the offspring of David, even everything that is revealed about God's purpose in the Christ Himself. It was a progressive revelation, not fully made known until after the resurrection, and by the apostle Paul was termed "the mystery of Christ". ROM. 16:25, Eph 3:4.

Now it is evident that the 490 years did not continue on from their early days in the first century: something happened to interrupt them which was unforeseen. No answer will be found in the Old Testament, nor the Gospels, nor even in the early Epistles. The explanation can be found only in the later Epistles of the apostle Paul, to whom was given a unique revelation of what had been hidden in God from both mankind and angels. Its consideration therefore is not part of this study. 

This outline of chronology owes much to the suggestions and findings of others. notably those listed below. The treatment of Daniel's Weeks and Manasseh's captivity originate with the wrlter. 

Regarding eclipses, Panin admits, "once indeed established, the testimony of an eclipse as to a date is final - - - - such an eclipse - - - will never conflict with true Bible Chronology IP.p160.  Let the reader now decide if this investigation has shown that to be so. 

Rutherford most aptly asserts. "no system of Hebrew chronology should be accepted until it has been subjected to the simple but searching tests of the Sabbatical and Jubilee cycles AR.p292.  So, to the ultimate question:  Is this 'system' to be accepted ? 

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY 

  • "Handbook to the Bible" ----------- 1880         F.R.& C.R. Conder --- - - HB 

  • "Bible Chronology" ----------------- 1923         Ivan Panin ------------------- IP 

  • "The measured times of the Bible" 1928         C.C.OglIvy Van Lennep - VL 

  • "Anglo-Saxon Israel" --------------- 1939         Adam Rutherford --- - - AR 

           [Despite the title this work devotes 280 pages to chronology] 

Dr Martin's writings are published by A.S.K. Box 25000 Portland, OR 97225 U.S.A. 

Maurice S. Lloyd, Glasgow March 1996

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